Simply put, a software-defined vehicle is a vehicle with features and functions that are enabled through software. This is different from today’s vehicles, which are primarily hardware-based platforms. A software-defined vehicle needs to simultaneously run multiple applications that are built on a standard operating system, similar to today’s computers and mobile phones. In automotive, this standard operating system is called middleware. As the operating system, middleware provides a foundation for basic functionality, including communication, memory management, scheduling, input/output/access to vehicle data, and Internet connectivity.